Torsional locomotion

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Torsional locomotion

Either your web browser doesn't support Javascript or it is currently turned off. In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page. One edge of an elastic rod is inserted into a friction-less and fitting socket head, whereas the other edge is subjected to a torque, generating a uniform twisting moment. It is theoretically shown and experimentally proved that, although perfectly smooth, the constraint realizes an expulsive axial force on the elastic rod, which amount is independent of the shape of the socket head.

The axial force explains why screwdrivers at high torque have the tendency to disengage from screw heads and demonstrates torsional locomotion along a perfectly smooth channel.

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Motion, based on self-propulsion or locomotion, is a research topic currently attracting strong attention in mechanics, robotics and biology. Since pioneering studies by Gray on serpentine propulsion [ 1 — 3 ], elastic bending of a rod has been shown to produce an axial tractive force, whereas torsion has never been linked to locomotion.

In mechanics, torsion of elastic rods is an old, but still ongoing and important research topic [ 4 — 11 ], which is linked in this article to locomotion through the following model problem. For instance, the elastic rod can be realized as a blade of thin rectangular cross section inserted in a flathead screw, or as a cylindrical rod of hexagonal cross section inserted in a hex socket.

In these conditions, if l is the length of the rod between the application point of the torque M and the end of the female constraint, D the torsional rigidity product of the elastic shear modulus G and the torsion constant J t of the rod, the total potential energy of the system at equilibrium is.

This force, nonlinear in Mwas never previously noted. It is, at a first glance, unexpected because of the smoothness of the female constraint, and simply explains why a screwdriver tends to disengage from a screw head.

Even more interestingly, this axial force 1.

torsional locomotion

The analytical expression, equation 1. Online version in colour. The Eshelby-like force 1. This approach was introduced by Balabukh et al. A substitution of equation 2. The elastic rod under twist is constrained against rotation by employing roller bearings from Misumi Europe press-fit straight type, 20 mm diameter and 25 mm lengthmodified to reduce friction. Where the torque is applied, the elastic rod has been left free to slide axially through a double system, consisting of a linear bushing LHGS from Misumi Europe mounted over a linear bearing type easy rail SN, from Rollonso that longitudinal friction has been practically eliminated.

Torsionally induced axial thrust S measured as a function of the applied torque M and compared with theoretical predictions equation 1.

In all cases, the theoretical predictions have been found to be extremely close to experimental results see the movie available as the electronic supplementary material for a sample of the test.Federal government websites often end in. The site is secure.

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Author s Jennifer C. Abstract Spinal-driven locomotion was first hypothesized to exist in biological systems in the 's; however, only recently has the concept been applied to legged robots. In implementing spinal-driven locomotion in robots to-date, researchers have focused on bending in the spine. In this paper, we propose an additional mode of spinal-driven locomotion: axial torsion via helical actuation patterns.

To study torsional spinal-driven locomotion, a six-legged robot with unactuated legs is used. This robot is designed to be modular to allow for changes in the physical system, such as material stiffness of the spine and legs, and has actuators that spiral around the central elastomeric spine of the robot.

A model is provided to explain torsional spinal-driven locomotion. Three spinal gaits were developed to allow the robot to walk forward. In addition to finding gaits that enable torsional spinal-driven locomotion, we demonstrate that the speed of the robot can be influenced by the stiffness of the spine and legs. We also demonstrate that a single gait can be used to drive the robot forward and turn the robot left and right by adjusting the leg positions or foot friction.

In this paper, we demonstrate that the inclusion of helical actuation patterns can assist in movement. The addition of these actuation patterns or active axial torsion to future, more complex robots with active leg control may enhance the robots' capabilities, such as energy efficiency or fast, dynamic maneuvering.

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Download Paper Local Download. Collaborative robots. Created July 15,Updated April 27, One edge of an elastic rod is inserted into a friction-less and fitting socket head, whereas the other edge is subjected to a torque, generating a uniform twisting moment.

torsional locomotion

It is theoretically shown and experimentally proved that, although perfectly smooth, the constraint realizes an expulsive axial force on the elastic rod, which amount is independent of the shape of the socket head. The axial force explains why screwdrivers at high torque have the tendency to disengage from screw heads and demonstrates torsional locomotion along a perfectly smooth channel. Motion, based on self-propulsion or locomotion, is a research topic currently attracting strong attention in mechanics, robotics and biology.

Since pioneering studies by Gray on serpentine propulsion [ 1 — 3 ], elastic bending of a rod has been shown to produce an axial tractive force, whereas torsion has never been linked to locomotion. In mechanics, torsion of elastic rods is an old, but still ongoing and important research topic [ 4 — 11 ], which is linked in this article to locomotion through the following model problem. For instance, the elastic rod can be realized as a blade of thin rectangular cross section inserted in a flathead screw, or as a cylindrical rod of hexagonal cross section inserted in a hex socket.

In these conditions, if l is the length of the rod between the application point of the torque M and the end of the female constraint, D the torsional rigidity product of the elastic shear modulus G and the torsion constant J t of the rod, the total potential energy of the system at equilibrium is.

This force, nonlinear in Mwas never previously noted.

Torsion and Detorsion in Gastropoda (With Diagram)

It is, at a first glance, unexpected because of the smoothness of the female constraint, and simply explains why a screwdriver tends to disengage from a screw head.

Even more interestingly, this axial force 1. The analytical expression, equation 1. Online version in colour.

torsional locomotion

The Eshelby-like force 1. This approach was introduced by Balabukh et al. A substitution of equation 2. Where the torque is applied, the elastic rod has been left free to slide axially through a double system, consisting of a linear bushing LHGS from Misumi Europe mounted over a linear bearing type easy rail SN, from Rollonso that longitudinal friction has been practically eliminated.

Torsionally induced axial thrust S measured as a function of the applied torque M and compared with theoretical predictions equation 1. In all cases, the theoretical predictions have been found to be extremely close to experimental results see the movie available as the electronic supplementary material for a sample of the test. Gray [ 1 — 3 ] has been the first to point out that a release of flexural elastic energy of a rod free of sliding in a frictionless channel can produce a locomotion force and Gray employed this force to explain fish and snake movement, so that a snake can propel itself producing bending by the backbone and its muscles.Torsional locomotion One edge of an elastic rod is inserted into a frictionless and fitting socket head, whereas the other edge is subjected to a torque, generating a uniform twisting moment.

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It is theoretically shown and experimentally proved that, although perfectly smooth, the constraint realizes an expulsive axial force on the elastic rod, which amount is independent of the shape of the socket head. The axial force explains why screwdrivers at high torque have the tendency to disengage from screw heads and demonstrates torsional locomotion along a perfectly smooth channel.

This new type of locomotion finds direct evidence in the realization of a 'torsional gun', capable of transforming torque into propulsive force. Related papers: D. Bigoni, F.

Dal Corso, D. Misseroni and F. Bosi, Torsional locomotion. Proceedings of the Royal Society A, One edge of an elastic rod is inserted into a frictionless and fitting socket head, whereas the other edge is subjected to a torque, generating a uniform twisting moment.The below mentioned article provides a brief account of torsion and detorsion in Gastropoda.

Mollusca are typically bilaterally symmetrical animals but this symmetry is lost in Gastropoda due to two processes called coiling and torsion. There is a tendency for digestion and resorption to be confined to a dorsal digestive gland or liver, the liver undergoes growth to form a projection which grows so much that it falls over to one side causing a coiling of the alimentary canal into a visceral hump.

The visceral hump grows faster on one side than on the other, so that it is twisted into a compact spiral which is directed posteriorly to keep the balance of the animal, the shell is also coiled.

With this spiral coiling one may confuse another process called torsion of the visceral mass, but this coiling evolved before torsion. This rotation is known as torsion which is distinct from coiling and is a much more drastic change, it occurs after coiling of the visceral hump. In torsion only a narrow part of the body and the organs which pass through it are twisted, it is that small part which lies between the visceral hump and the rest of the body.

Torsion changes the orientation of the mantle cavity and its organs, and the organs of the left side tend to be reduced or even lost.

Torsional locomotion.

Before torsion the mantle cavity opens posteriorly, ctenidia point backwards, the auricles are behind the ventricle, the nervous system is bilaterally symmetrical, and the mouth and the anus are at opposite ends. After torsion the mantle cavity opens in front just behind the head, ctenidia come to lie in front and point anteriorly, the ctenidium of the right side comes to lie on the left and that of the left side on the right, the auricles become anterior to the ventricle, the auricle of the right side comes to lie on the left and vice versa, the nervous system is twisted into a figure of 8 by the crossing of the two long nerve connectives running to the viscera, and the digestive system becomes U-shaped so that the anus comes to lie in front near the mouth.

In primitive Gastropoda there are two ctenidia, two auricles and two kidneys, but in more specialised forms the real left but topographically right ctenidium, right auricle and the right kidney fail to form; this absence of organs of the right side is a consequence of torsion. The number of auricles is directly related with the number of ctenidia present, and the loss of one gill leaves only one auricle. It is not clear whether torsion is an advantage or not to the animal, or if it has any evolutionary significance, but it takes place during the embryological development of gastropods, the larva is a first bilaterally symmetrical, then quite suddenly it undergoes torsion.

In some forms the changes brought about by torsion are reversed to a certain extent, while in others, e.

torsional locomotion

In Cephalopoda the body has become greatly elongated along the dorso-ventral axis, and as a result of change in the method of locomotion this axis has become the functional anteroposterior axis. A ring of tentacles lies at the anterior end of the body and the visceral hump is posterior, the original mantle cavity has become ventral. Top Menu BiologyDiscussion. Neanthes Virens: Habitat, Locomotion and Development. Unio: Habitat, Locomotion and Sense Organs.

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Gastropoda --Torsion \u0026 Detorsion-- -Full Notes With Discussion-

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Torsional locomotion

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Seething Jackal (7) 8. Valiant Mate (3) BELLA VELLA resumes after a spell of 23 weeks and has placed once in two trials, the testing material. SEETHING JACKAL resumes after a spell of 21 weeks and placed in both trials, don't dismiss. CAPER in strong form with two wins from six attempts this campaign and down in weight, place hope. VALIANT MATE generally strong second-up and ran four lengths back from the winner last start at Hawkesbury when first up, chance to place.

New Horizons (2) 7. Corinth (1) EQUIPPED in the money last start running third at Kembla and up in distance, key chance.

NEW HORIZONS should race just off the speed and placed when fresh, still in this. LATIFA placed once this prep at Newcastle and down in weight, could upset.

CORINTH drawn the rails and capable of closing gamely, place best. Good Time Charlie (5) Scratched 6. Filomena's Grace (2) 5. RADCLIFFE first-up after 57 week spell and looks ready to go on back of trial performances, genuine contender.

Spinal Helical Actuation Patterns for Locomotion in Soft Robots

GOOD TIME CHARLIE has two placings from four runs this prep and chased well to fall just short last start at Canterbury, hard to hold out. FILOMENA'S GRACE failed to win as a favourite last start at Kembla on a soft track but has good early speed and down in weight, don't treat lightly. NICCI'S GOLD won last start at Kembla on a soft track and tends to go well on a softer track, cannot be ruled out.

Lucky Hada (1) 2. Cool Dude Ausbred (15) 14. Thunderbunny (4) Scratched 10. Elementae (11) LUCKY HADA yet to miss the placegetters in two runs and was narrowly beaten as a favourite last start at Hawkesbury, the testing material.

COOL DUDE AUSBRED first-up after 17 week spell and yet to miss the placegetters in two runs, the real danger in the race. ELEMENTAE placed when fresh and faded to finish seventh last start at Wyong, place claims. Dawn Raid (10) 3. Calabash Express (1) 8.

Off the Dial (2) 1. Legistation (3) DAWN RAID can't knock the form winning two in a row at Goulburn and gets going late, leading hope.


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